Serum calcium and magnesium levels in acute gastroenteritis
Background: Acute diarrhea endemic in India has a prevalence of 7% which is commonly seen in children and also is a major problem in adults. Acute diarrhea with dehydration culminates in the loss of electrolytes. Not only Na+ K+ but also Ca2+and Mg2+ are also substantially lost and lead to symptoms and adds to morbidity and prolong hospitalization.
Methods: In this observational study, a total of 100 cases of acute gastroenteritis admitted to the department of general medicine and infectious disease ward of VIMSAR, Burla, between November 2018 to December 2019 were investigated clinically and biochemically and data were interpreted statistically.
Results: Males (56%) were more in number than females (44%), were mostly in the age group of 26-35 years (24%). Hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyponatremia were found in 97%, 59%, 49%, 48% of cases respectively. Correlation of Serum Ca2+with (r-value) total episodes of vomiting (-0.536), total episode of stools (-0.880), S. Na+ level (-0.374), S. K+ level (-0.729), with the duration of hospital stay (-0.770) respectively. Correlation of S. Mg2+ levels with (r-value) total episodes of vomiting (-0.475), total episode of stools (-0.498), S. Na+ level (-0.301), S. K+ level (-0.801), duration of hospital stay (-0.699) respectively. The correlations were found to be statistically highly significant (with a p-value is <0.01).
Conclusion: Early detection and prompt correction of electrolytes will be beneficial, as it will decrease the duration of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality, thereby, decrease the burden on the health system of the country.
Park K. Acute diarrheal disease. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Med¬icine. 21st Ed. 200-210.
Gangarosa RE, Glass RI, Lew JF, Boring JR. Hospitalizations involving gastroenteritis in the United States, 1985: the special burden of the disease among the elderly. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(3):281-290. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116282.
Fischer-Walker CL, Black RE: Diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in older chil¬dren, adolescents, and adults. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138(9):1215-1226. doi: 10.1017/S0950268810000592.
Moe Allan E. Electrolyte Balance in Gastrointestinal Disease. Calif Med.1955;83(5):339-342.
Bringhurst FR. Bone and mineral metabolism in health and disease. Harrison's Principles of Internal Med. 2008:2365-2377.
Whang R, Oei TO, Aikawa JK, Watanabe A, Vannatta J, Fryer A, et al; Predictors of clinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypophos¬phatemia, hyponatremia and hypocalcaemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144(9):1794-1796.
Devrajani BR, Shah SZ, Shaikh S, Shaikh S, Essa S. Hypocalcemia in acute gastroenteritis (a case control study at the de¬part¬ment of internal medicine). World App Sci J. 2009;7(6):777-780.
Gate AK, Roy AK, Navae S. Serum calcium, magnesium and potassium in acute diarrhoea patients coming to pravara rural hospital. Int J Clin Biomed Res. 2018;4(2):7-11. doi: 10.5455/ijcbr.2018.42.02.
Purohit J, Patel N, Bharodiya R, Srivastav V. Study of Serum Magnesium Level in Acute Diarrhea. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2017;16(4):76-80. doi: 10.9790/0853-1604087680.
Rajoor UG, Sindhur JC, Lakshmana Kumar YC. Etiological spectrum and complications of acute diarrhoeal diseases in adults. IJRRMS. 2012;2(2):9-12.
KC M, Gurubacharya DL, Lohani R, Rauniyar A. Serum Urea, Creatinine and Electrolyte Status in Patients Presenting with Acute Gastroenteritis. J Nep Med Assoc 2006;JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2006;45(163):291-294.
Copyright (c) 2021 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.