International Journal of Medical Research and Review <p><em><strong>ISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2320-8686 (Online)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2321-127X (Print)</a></strong></em></p> Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society en-US International Journal of Medical Research and Review 2321-127X Effect of Previous Scorpion Bite on the Ecacy of IntrathecallyAdministered Bupivacaine in Subarachnoid Block <p>Aim: To study the efficacy of spinal anesthesia in patients with previous scorpion bites and patientswith no such history.</p> <p>Method: In this study, 40 patients were divided into two groups each of 20,patients with h/o scorpion bite (group -1), patients with no such history (group -2), scheduled forlower abdominal and lower limb surgeries, the subarachnoid block was given with 3.0 ml of injectionBupivacaine 0.5% heavy using 26 gauzes Quincke spinal needle. A blind observer recorded asensory block using a needle prick and a motor block using the Bromage scale.</p> <p>Result: Patients whohad previous scorpion bites (group -1) had a significant failure rate of spinal anesthesia compared tothe patient with no such history (group - 2). Our study shows how in the bite group, the onset andpeak effect of sensory and motor block is prolonged statistically significantly after exposure to ascorpion bite. It also depends on the number of exposures, as shown in table 4.</p> <p>Conclusion: In thisstudy, it was observed that the patients with scorpion bites had a significant failure rate of spinalanesthesia, suggesting probable resistance to the local anesthetic agents as observed in previoussimilar studies.</p> Ashwini Patel Sonali Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 9 6 351 356 A study to assess the practice of biomedical waste management and its influencing factors among health care providers at selected hospitals of Kolkata, West Bengal. <p>Background: Mismanagement of healthcare waste puts the community, the patients and healthcare workers at risk, both in terms of the risks from inadequate storage, transportation and disposal of infectious waste and from the environmental risks arising from hazardous burning. A descriptive survey was undertaken to assess the practice of Biomedical Waste Management and its influencing factors among health care providers.</p> <p>Method: Quantitative, non-experimental Survey Research Design was adopted. A total of 105 health care providers, namely the Staff Nurses, Doctors and Group-D staff, were selected by convenient sampling technique from three government hospitals. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.</p> <p>Result: The study findings revealed that the mean practice scores for Staff Nurses, Doctors and Group-D staff were 16.66, 14.77 and 16.03, respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the practice score of Staff Nurses and their age (χ2(1) = 8.11, p&lt;0.05) and period of working experience in the hospital setup (χ2(1) = 8.24, p&lt;0.05). The factors like unawareness (28.6%), lack of training or in-service education (41.9%), overload of work (61%), lack of supervision (36.2%), lack of audit (36.2%), lack of supplies (61.9%) as expressed by the health care providers also emerged from the study which is probably the negative factors leading to their average practice and poor practice.</p> <p>Conclusion From the study findings, it can be concluded that only a few of the practices of health care providers were good, of which Staff Nurses were the majority group who adhere to good practices.</p> Ngamning Ngoruw Moyon Khumukcham Anupama Devi Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 9 6 357 367 Etiology and endoscopic profile of dysphagia in adults - Single center study at a tertiary care center in South India. <p>Background: Dysphagia is defined as difficulty in deglutition. It can be either structural or motility abnormality in the passage of food from the oral cavity to the stomach. Upper GI endoscopy is the most important tool to diagnose dysphagia and rule out premalignant and malignant lesions. The purpose of the study was to classify various causes of dysphagia.</p> <p>Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 206 patients with complaints of dysphagia. Detailed history, physical examination was done. Upper GI endoscopy was done in all cases, and biopsies were taken if required. Oropharyngeal and neurological dysphagia were excluded from the study. The statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. The mean, percentage and proportions were calculated.</p> <p>Results: Two hundred and six patients were included in the study. Out of 206 patients, 127 were females, and 79 were males. The mean age was 43.62 years. The commonest age group was 21- 40 years contributing 41.7% cases, followed by 41-60 years contributing to 30.8% cases. Benign etiology (n= 141) was more common than that of malignant (n= 65). The commonest benign etiology was reflux esophagitis (n =54) followed by esophageal candidiasis (n= 38). The commonest malignant etiology was adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (n= 38), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n= 24).</p> <p>Conclusions: The upper GI endoscopy is effective and safe modality to diagnose dysphagia. Benign etiologies were more common among females, but malignant causes were more common among males. The incidence of esophageal malignancy increases with advanced age.</p> Sachin K. Dhande Chandrasekar Murugesan Anbalagan Pichaimuthu Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 9 6 368 373