International Journal of Medical Research and Review <p><em><strong>ISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2320-8686 (Online)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2321-127X (Print)</a></strong></em></p> Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society en-US International Journal of Medical Research and Review 2321-127X A study on nephropathy in type2 diabetes individuals in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India <p>Introduction: Diabetes nephropathy (DN) is an important, life-threatening microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). With this, a study was conducted to find the association between type 2 DM and DN.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of general medicine, GSL Medical College. Type 2 diabetic subjects who attended the outpatient and inpatient wards, aged &gt; 30 years were included in the study, known renal disease/ were not considered. Albumin creatinine ratio was measured by immune turbidometry using a microalbuminuria test kit provided by ERBA MANHEIM GERMANY. Serum creatinine was done by creatininase enzymatic method, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. P&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p>Results: A total of 150 DM participants were included in the study; mean serum creatinine was 1.59 + 1.25 with a range from 0.4 to 8.7 mg/dl and mean eGFR of the study participants was 73.65 + 40.428 ml/min/m2 with a range from 7 to 162 ml/min/m2. DN was detected in 45% (67) participants.</p> <p>Conclusions: The present study reveals that there was significant evidence to support that microalbuminuria or proteinuria in patients with diabetes is a potential risk factor not only for kidney function impairment but also as a marker for high risk of cardiovascular complications.</p> Dr. Avapati Raja Sekhar Dr. Nallamothu Murali Krishna Dr. Bhaskar Dorapudi Dr. T Jaya Chandra Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 8 5 338 343 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.01 Mental health of cisgender and transgender during COVID-19 pandemic <p>Normally every individual wants to lead a free life movement but sometimes could not possible due to external environmental effects. During and after the home quarantine, people are still scared by consistent death and infected news of the 2019-nCoV pandemic. Which is why most of the persons have been feeling insecure and nervous that significantly growing up long term stress. The current study depicts the ongoing mental health condition of Bangladeshi cisgender and transgender individuals caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.</p> <p>Methods: A quarter-long cross-sectional survey has been conducted to observe the current mental health condition of the people in Bangladesh. The current study surveyed 1162 participants in the country. The DASS21 scale was used to measure the stress level of individuals.</p> <p>Outcomes: Results show that Bangladeshi individuals experienced a high level of stress (STD-15.28, Mean-32.61) that was higher than other recent studies such as China (STD: 5.45; Mean: 23.65). As a result, high levels of mental stress would be a reason for long-term mental illness after the 2019-nCoV pandemic, which may decline the health and working productivity. However, this study didn’t find any significant link between age/education levels and mental stress.</p> <p>Conclusion: The study findings disclosed that the growing up mental stress issue is holding a wide variety of people captive in its claws. Therefore, the study suggests that more studies on mental illness should be required in every region around the world. This may help to make experimental mental health recommendations and possible outlines for starting a healthy life after the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Amitab Bhattacharjee Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi Mashiur Rahman Bhuiyan Sakera Sultana Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 8 5 344 351 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.02 Study of Tissue Inhomogeneity Effects on Central Axis Radiation Beam Parameters using Monte Carlo Methods <p><em>Abstract: </em></p> <p><em>Introduction;</em> <em>The central axis radiation beam parameters are used for the dose calculations in radiotherapy and usually measured in a homogeneous medium. Human body is not homogeneous in nature and the incident beam has to travel through different medium such as bone tissue air etc to reach the tumor. The presence of such Inhomogeneity perturb the central axis beam parameters.The experimental measurements of dose variation in the presence such Inhomogeneity is seldom possible and Monte Carlo methods can be used to study in cases.</em></p> <p><em>Objective:</em> <em>The objective of the present work is to study the effects of tissue Inhomogeneity on central axis beam parameter such as Percentage Depth Dose using Monte Carlo Methods</em></p> <p><em>Materials and Methods:</em><em>The Monte Carlo simulation is a virtual experiment and can be conducted with the </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Monte Carlo </em><em>software tool</em><em> installed in a PC </em><em>.I</em><em>nput files are written as per the specification of the </em><em>Monte Carlo </em><em>code.</em><em> Two radiation beams beams commonly used for radiation treatment such as Cobalt 60 and 6MV X ray were used for the simulation.&nbsp; </em><em>The study conducted for</em><em> a homogeneous </em><em>tissue</em><em> medium,and two Inhomogeneity situations such as tissue</em><em> air tissue and tissue bone tissue medium</em><em>.</em><em> P</em><em>ercentage Depth Dose(P</em><em>DD</em><em>)</em><em> curves were generated</em><em> from the simulated results. </em></p> <p><em>R</em><em>esults</em><em>:</em> <em>Depth Dose characteristics in homogeneous tissue medium for Cobalt60 and 6MV X rays beams were studied and is consistent with the published experimental values.</em><em>In the second </em><em>case, a</em><em>t the interface between tissue and bone the PDD pattern changed</em><em> as reported by the previous works</em><em>.</em><em> And the</em><em> absorbed dose at bone layer is higher than the dose value predicated in a homogeneous condition. In the next simulation we conducted the simulation for a tissue air tissue medium.</em><em> I</em><em>t was observed that</em><em> as the beam passes through the tissue air interface the distribution changes drastically. The dose deposition in air become very </em><em>small and the PDD values at other points in the air medium show large variation than the homogeneous condition. Interestingly It is also observed that a buildup condition occur at the second air tissue interface.</em></p> <p><em>Conclusion</em><em>: The Monte Carlo </em><em>Our studies clearly demonstrate the perturbation effects caused by the presence of </em><em>Inhomogeneity</em> <em>when</em><em> a radiation beam is transporting through the human tissues.</em><em>For the accurate estimation of absorbed dose the Inhomogeneity effects must be considered in actual clinical practice and t</em><em>he Monte Carlo study can </em><em>be used t</em><em>o estimate the </em><em>Inhomogeneity</em><em> correction factors that have to be incorporated for dose calculations</em><em>.</em><em>The present study clearly demonstrate that Monte Carlo methods simulation can be used as a tool for estimation of dose in tissue Inhomogeneity where measurements are seldom possible. </em></p> Dr. Santhosh VS Dr. Anand RK Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 8 5 352 362 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.03 A Study on the correlation between platelet indices and severity score in acute ischemic stroke <p>Background: Acute ischemic stroke results from the sudden loss of blood circulation to an area of cerebral hemispheres leading to irreversible brain injury and neurological deficits persisting for more than 24 hours or until death. It accounts for 80-87% of all strokes. The present study aimed to find the association between various hematological indices such as Mean platelet Volume (MPV), Platelet Distribution Width (PDW), Platelet to Lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).</p> <p>Methods: It was a prospective study done at the Department of Medicine at Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital in which 80 patients with Acute Ischemic stroke were divided into two groups basing on the NIHSS score. Proper Exclusion criteria were carried out and the patients' blood samples were taken. Various Platelet and hematological indices were measured and statistical analysis was done using SPSS Software.</p> <p>Results: There is a positive correlation between PLR and NIHSS scores. It is a statistically significant association. But there is no statistical significance between Platelet indices and NIHSS score.</p> <p>Conclusion: Being Low cost and easy to measure the nature of PLR, these indices can be used in the prediction of the prognosis in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.</p> Dr. Dasari Govind Dr. Mallipeddi Malleswara Rao Dr. K. Sudheer Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 8 5 363 368 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.04 Papillary carcinoma of the male breast in a comparatively young patient: A case report of a rare entity <p>Breast carcinoma in men is rare and intra-cystic papillary carcinoma of male breast is an extremely rare entity. Papillary lesions of male breast comprise of the spectrum of lesions ranging from benign intraductal papilloma to intraductal papillary carcinoma and invasive papillary carcinoma. It occurs most commonly in the seventh decade of life and accounts for &lt;1% of all breast malignancies. The present case report is of a comparatively younger, 37 years old male who presented with a mass on lower quadrant (retro-areolar region) of the left breast.</p> Dr. Dolly Prashant Dr. Viplav Prashant Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 8 5 369 374 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.05 Posterior segment intraocular foreign body with secondary retinal detachment in a phakic eye: a case report <p>Intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) are an important cause of visual loss. The current case describes a case of retained intraocular foreign body with secondary retinal detachment in a phakic eye in a 38-year-old man. The foreign body was safely removed through the sclerotomy port without touching the crystalline lens. The current case report wanted to show the anatomic and visual outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery in such cases.</p> Dr. Amit C Porwal Dr. Hardik Jain Dr. Pratik Mahajan Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 8 5 375 378 10.17511/ijmrr.2020.i05.06