International Journal of Medical Research and Review <p><em><strong>ISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2320-8686 (Online)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2321-127X (Print)</a></strong></em></p> en-US (Mr Daulat Ram) (Mr Daulat Ram) Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Knowledge and Awareness of usage of Artificial Sweeteners among Indian type 2 diabetes individuals in a tertiary diabetes institute <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease primarily attributable to unhealthy, untimely food habits and lack of physical activity. Good glycemic control is one of the key aspects in preventing complications. This has led to a shift in replacing sugar with artificial sweeteners amongst the diabetic population. It is not known whether this is aimed to maintain blood glucose levels or to satisfy the sweet cravings. There is lack of awareness of the type and long-term side effects of artificial sweeteners among people with diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study was conducted to assess the awareness and knowledge of usage of artificial sweeteners among adults with type 2 diabetes visiting a tertiary diabetes institute.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study population involved 297 adults (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes attending tertiary diabetes institute. Data was collected from face-to-face interview technique along with a pre-validated questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total number of subjects (n=297) comprised 126 females and 171 males of age 18-88 with mean age of 56.5 years. Sucralose was the most popular sugar substitute amongst the subjects (45%) followed by Aspartame (32%), 13% of them are completely not aware of the type of artificial sweetener that they consumed. About 36.7% of the subjects belonged to pre-obese category with BMI 25-29.9kg/m<sup>2</sup> with women on the upper scale. 57.91% of the respondents started consuming artificial sweeteners in the recent years i.e., between 1to 5 years. 87% of the subjects consumed artificial sweeteners in the form of pellets in tea or coffee as a medium and 51% consumed it to manage blood glucose levels. 51.2% had gastrointestinal side effects. Significant number of the subjects (81.5%) was unaware of the long-term side effects of artificial sweeteners.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study findings highlight the high rate of unawareness amongst the subjects regarding the side effects of long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners. Hence, reading nutrition label on the products, judicious consumption of artificial sweeteners and nutritional education can be helpful in making wise food choices.</p> Sharanya S Shetty, Dietitian, R Anil Kumar, Shruthi R Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Shear Wave Elastography of Liver: Measurement of normal liver stiffness in healthy population and factors affecting it <p>Background: Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) is a recent non-invasive method for determining liverstiffness. SWE is a two-dimensional elastography technique in which an amplitude-modulated beamof focused ultrasound is used to generate shear waves which are then transmitted by the transducerto the region of interest (ROI), where the propagation speed of shear waves is measured. Thepresent study is the first attempt to measure the normal range of liver stiffness using SWE in ahealthy population from North India and to study the effect of age, gender, and BMI on the liverstiffness values in the healthy population.</p> <p>Methods: This cross-sectional observational study wasconducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Government Medical College, Jammuon 117 healthy subjects without any known liver pathology or history of any liver disease. B-ModeUltrasound scan, followed by SWE Examination was performed on all subjects using SAMSUNGRS80EVO using CA1-7A convex array probe with a frequency of 1 to 7 MHz.</p> <p>Results: Successfulresults were obtained in 98.2%. The mean value of liver stiffness in 115 healthy subjects was 4.74± 0.91 kPa, and the 95% confidence interval was 4.58-4.91 kPa. (Range: 2.7-7.8 kPa). There wereno statistically significant differences in liver stiffness values regarding age, gender and BMI in thehealthy population (all p&gt; 0.05).</p> Namrita Dhar, Dr. Ishan Gupta, Kulbhushan Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Distal Radial Artery Access (DRA) Vs. Transradial Access (TRA): Current Evidence <p>Introduction: Transradial access (TRA) is currently recommended over the transfemoral (TFA)route as default, for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and coronary angiography in allpatients, by the European and American Guidelines, because of reduced risk of bleeding, vascularcomplications and mortality especially in acute and high -risk patients.</p> <p>Aims and objectives: Distalradial artery access (DRA) via the anatomical snuffbox is a safe and feasible alternative to standardtransradial access (TRA). This review aims to study and discuss the endpoints in recent studiescomparing DRA with TRA for coronary procedures to conclude the merits and demerits of DRA Vs.TRA.</p> <p>Material and Methods: The evidence from several randomized and non-randomized studiesand meta-analyses comparing DRA with TRA is reviewed. Results: Though access failures andcrossovers are reported to be higher with DRA compared to TRA; most studies have shown nodifference in vascular complications in patients undergoing procedures via DRA or TRA.</p> <p>Results ofsome randomized controlled trials between DRA Vs. TRA for coronary procedures, including PrimaryPercutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are available andare discussed; while others are underway for evaluation of radial artery occlusion (RAO) and otherend-points.</p> <p>Conclusion: DRA takes more time, and fails more often compared to TRA; though timeto hemostasis is less and forearm hematoma is unreported with DRA. The Jury is still out on RAObetween DRA Vs. TRA; but the meticulous application of RAO prevention practices is the key toachieving low RAO</p> Yashasvi Chugh, Sunita Chugh, Sanjay Kumar Chugh Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Mon, 07 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Window of opportunity in axial spondyloarthritis: A Stitch in Time <p>Axial spondyloarthritis comprising both non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosingspondylitis has a deleterious impact on the patient’s quality of life with a detrimental outcome ofstructural damage. Although in the current era of diagnostic advancements, axSpA can be diagnosedearly within a short period after the onset of symptoms, but still there is a delay of up to severalyears in many parts of the world. The concept of a window of opportunity is primarily derived fromrheumatoid arthritis, which is relevant in the context of axSpA based upon the early diagnosis and tocommence highly effective treatment with biologics like anti-TNF and anti-IL-17 to modify thedisease process for arresting structural damage or syndesmophytes formation. Still, challenges existfor early diagnosis of SpA in patients with low back pain which ultimately creates a barrier toeffective treatment initiation. More robust researches along with the available evidence on both theaspects of clinical and imaging factors are the way forward for the early identification of susceptibleindividuals for early intervention with a better outcome.</p> Parasar Ghosh, Pradip Kumar Sarma, Padmanabha Shenoy, Dhrubojyoti Mukherjee, Akshay Desai Copyright (c) 2022 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Fri, 18 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000