Role of ultrasound in diagnosis of fetal congenital abdominal anomalies: One year prospective study
Introduction: Congenital anomalies are important cause of perinatal and infant mortality, and are contributor to childhood morbidity. Fetal congenital abdominal anomalies are one of the most common anomalies. Ultrasound screening of fetus helps to identify these anomalies as early as possible in antenatal period and thus provides information for proper decisions during pregnancy.
Aim: To find out the incidence of congenital abdominal anomalies affecting fetus and to study the outcome in patients with fetal congenital abdominal anomalies by following them postnatally.
Material and Methods: Prospective, Observational and Non-interventional study. Ultrasound screening of 5761 fetuses were performed. Pregnancies, with ultrasound findings of fetal congenital abdominal anomalies with or without other associated anomalies, were followed up. Postnatal confirmation of anomalies were carried out by clinical examination/ imaging procedures / autopsy.
Results: Incidence of fetal congenital abdominal anomalies was 5.56 per 1000 births. Among the fetal congenital abdominal anomalies, fetal urinary tract anomalies were the most common with an incidence of 4.69 per 1000 births. Incidence of Omphalocele, Gastroschisis and Jejunoileal atresia were 5.2, 1.7 and 1.7 per 10,000 births respectively. Concordance between antenatal and postnatal diagnosis was 90.63%.
Conclusion: Antenatal ultrasound examination should be performed for all pregnant women to diagnose congenital anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies provides information for proper decisions during pregnancy, fetal intervention if available and appropriate treatment perinatally, thus improves perinatal and long term outcomes.
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