Clinical and Epidemiological profile of Anemia in central India
Background: The present, hospital based prevalence study has been conducted to assess the clinical and epidemiological profile of anemia in central India.
Methods: In this study 200 patients of anemia from medical out patients department and indoor wards, age between 15-70 years, randomly selected without any bias for sex, occupation, socio-economic status and duration of disease.
Results: This study shows that maximum number of patients (40%) were from age group 21-30 years. Between 15-30 years age group, prevalence of anemia was more in females than males. 57% study population have moderate anemia and 41% patients have severe anemia. Weakness & easy fatigability were most common (100%) presenting symptoms and pallor was most common (98% patients) clinical sign. Microcytic and hypochromic type peripheral smear was most common laboratory findings (59% cases). Nutritional anemia was the most common type of anemia (84%).
Conclusions: Nutritional deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia among population, and iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in population.
2. Maurício S Leite, Andrey M Cardoso, Carlos EA Coimbra, James R Welch, Silvia A Gugelmin, Pedro Cabral I Lira, Bernardo L Horta, Ricardo Ventura Santos and Ana Lúcia Escobar. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition.Nutrition Journal 2013;12:69.
3. Milman N. Anemia--still a major health problem in many parts of the world. Ann Hematol. 2011;90(4):369-77. [PubMed]
4. Khambalia AZ, Aimone AM, Zlotkin SH. Burden of anemia among indigenous populations. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(12):693-719. [PubMed]
5. Prakash V Kotecha. Nutritional Anemia in Young Children with Focus on Asia and India. Indian J Community Med. 2011; 36(1): 8–16. [PubMed]
6. Pasricha SR, Black J, Muthayya S, Shet A, Bhat V, Nagaraj S, Prashanth NS, Sudarshan H, Biggs BA, Shet AS: Determinants of anemia among young children in rural India. Pediatrics 2010, 26:e140-e149. [PubMed]
7. R.G. Viveki1, A.B. Halappanavar, P.R. Viveki, S.B. Halki, V.S. Maled, P.S. Deshpande. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women. Al Ameen J Med Sci.2012;5(3):216-23.
8. K. Kalaivani. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130: 627-33. [PubMed]
9. Lindsay H Allen. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;71(5):1280s-84s. [PubMed]
10. Chang S, Zeng L, Brouwer ID, Kok FJ, Yan H. Effect of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy on child mental development in rural China. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):e755-63. [PubMed]
11. Theresa O. Scholl, Thomas Reilly. Anemia, Iron and Pregnancy Outcome. J. Nutr. 2000; 130(2): 443S-47S. [PubMed]
12. Agaoglu L, Torun O, Unuvar E, Sefil Y, Demir D. Effects of iron deficiency anemia on cognitive function in children. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(6A):426-30. [PubMed]
13. Wang B, Zhan S, Gong T, Lee L. Iron therapy for improving psychomotor development and cognitive function in children under the age of three with iron deficiency anaemia. chrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 6;6:CD001444.( doi: 10.1002/14651858. CD001444.pub2.)
14. Radlowski EC, Johnson RW. Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development. . Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:585. [PubMed]
15. Karine Tolentino, Jennifer F. Friedman. An Update on Anemia in Less Developed Countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77(1): 44-51. [PubMed]
16. Nynke van den Broek. Anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies, Reducing maternal death and disability during pregnancy. Br Med Bull (2003) 67 (1): 149-160. [PubMed]
18. Coyer SM. Anemia: diagnosis and management. J Pediatr Health Care.2005;19(6):380-5. [PubMed]
19. Kumar A. National nutritional anaemia control programme in India. Indian J Public Health. 1999;43(1):3-5. [PubMed]
20. Gururaj N, Sivapathasundharam B, Sumathy N. Cytological findings in iron deficiency anemia. Indian J Dent Res. 2004;15(4):126-28. [PubMed]
21. Panagiotou JP, Douros K. Clinicolaboratory findings and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;21(6):521-34. [PubMed]
22. Carlo Brugnara. A Hematologic “Gold Standard” for Iron-deficient States. Clinical Chemistry. 2002; 48(7): 981-82. [PubMed]
23. Florence A, Joseph J.M, Steven H.Y. Megaloblastic Anemia and Other Causes of Macrocytosis. Clinical Medicine & Research. 2006; 4(3): 236-41. [PubMed]
24. Antony AC. Megaloblastic anemia. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Shattil SJ, Furie B, Cohen HJ, Silberstein LE, et al. (eds). Hematology. Basic principles and practice. 4th ed. Edinburgh:Churchill Livingstone; 2005:519–56.
25. Carmel R. Megaloblastic anemias: Disorders of impaired DNA synthesis. In: Greer JP, Foerster J, Lukens JN, Rodgers GM, Paraskevas F, Glader B (eds). Wintrobe’s clinical hematology. 11th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2004:1367–95.
26. Yusufji D, Mathan VI, Baker SJ. Iron, folate and vitamin B12 nutrition in pregnancy: A study of 1000 women from southern India. Bull World Health Organ 1973;48:15–22. [PubMed]
27. Katar S, Nuri Ozbek M, Yaramiş A, Ecer S. Nutritional megaloblastic anemia in young Turkish children is associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency and psychomotor retardation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28(9):559-62.
28. Louis Lowenstein, Lauder Brunton, and Yang-Shu Hsieh. Nutritional Anemia and Megaloblastosis in Pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J. 1966; 94(13): 636–45. [PubMed]
29. Chaudhary SM, Dhage VR. A study of anemia among adolescent females in the urban area of Nagpur. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33:243-5. [PubMed]
30. Bhasin A, Rao MY. Characteristics of Anemia in Elderly: A Hospital Based Study in South India. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2011; 27(1): 26–32. [PubMed]
31. Panigrahi A, Sahoo PB. Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa. Indian J Public Health. 2011;55:317-20. [PubMed]
32. WHO. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011 (WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.1)
33. Verma M, Chhatwal J, Kaur G.Prevalence of anemia among urban school children of Punjab. Indian Pediatr. 1998 Dec;35(12):1181-6. [PubMed]
34. Upadhyay S. Kumar A. R. Singh R. Raghuvanshi and Singh, B. B. Nutritional Status and Knowledge of Hill Women on Anemia: Effect of Various Socio-demographic Factors, J Hum Ecol. 2011; 33(1): 29-34.
35. Kakkar R, Kakkar M, Kandpal SD, Jethani S. Study of anemia in adolescent school girls of Bhopal. Indian J Community Health 2010;22:38-40.
36. Nusrat Shaheen,Junaid S. Wani,A.R. Nasti,M.I.Quadri. Ocular Manifestation in Anemia-A Clinical Study. JK-Practitioner 2005;12(3):128-130.
37. WOwen Uprichard, James Uprichard. Investigating microcytic anaemia. BMJ2013;346:f3154. [PubMed]
38. Chang Hyung Hong, Cherie Falvey, Tamara B. Harris, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Suzanne Satterfield, MD, Luigi Ferrucci, Andrea L. Metti, Kushang V. Patel, Kristine Yaffe. Anemia and risk of dementia in older adults. Neurology . 2013; 81( 6): 528-533
39. Barbara J. Bain. Diagnosis from the Blood Smear. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:498-507. [PubMed]
40. Haas JD, Brownlie T IV. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr. 2001;131(2 suppl):676S–88S; discussion 688S–90S. [PubMed]
41. Algarin C, Peirano P, Garrido M, Pizarro F, Lozoff B. Iron deficiency anemia in infancy: long-lasting effects on auditory and visual system functioning. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:217–23. [PubMed]
42. Massey AC. Microcytic anemia. Differential diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia. Med Clin North Am. 1992;76(3):549-66.