Ebola Outbreak: An Evolving Epidemic- A Review

  • Dr. Vishnu Kumar Patel Assistant Professor (Surgery), S.S. Medical College, Rewa (MP), India
  • Dr. Umesh Patel Associate Professor (Pediatrics), L.N. Medical College, Bhopal, MP, India
  • Dr. D. Sharad Gedam Professor (Pediatrics), L.N. Medical College, Bhopal, MP, India
  • Dr. Narmada Prasad Patel Associate Professor (Medicine), L.N. Medical College, Bhopal, MP, India
  • Dr. Jyotsna Verma Assistant Professor (Pediatrics), L.N. Medical College, Bhopal, MP, India
  • Dr. Varsha Tiwari Senior Resident (Pediatrics), L.N. Medical College, Bhopal, MP, India
Keywords: Ebola, hemorrhagic disease, mortality


Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe and often deadly illness that can occur in humans and primates (e.g. monkeys, gorillas). It is some of most virulent pathogens of humans, causing severe hemorrhagic fever that resembles fulminant septic shock. Recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has threatened the whole world, because of the high mortality (80-90%). No approved therapy is available for the treatment of these diseases, but progress has been made in new experimental approaches to post exposure prophylaxis and/or treatment that are effective in laboratory primates. Prevention is the best tool. Now WHO has also declared Ebola as a “public health emergency of international concern”. It can also be misused as a bioterrorism agent.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Baize S, Pannetier D, Oestereich L, Rieger T, Koivogui L, Magassouba N, et al. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea - preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2014;Published online 16 April. [PubMed]

2. WHO. WHO statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee regarding the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. 2014.

3. Feldmann H, Geisbert TW. Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Lancet. 2011;377:849-62. [PubMed]

4. Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, Yaba P, Delicat A, Paweska JT, Gonzalez JP, Swanepoel R. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature. 2005 Dec;438(7068):575-6. [PubMed]

5. Wong G, Qiu X, Olinger GG, Kobinger GP. Post-exposure therapy of filovirus infections. Trends Microbiol. 2014 Aug;22(8):456-63. [PubMed]

6. Qiu X, Audet J, Wong G, Pillet S, Bello A, Cabral T, et al. Successful treatment of Ebola virus-infected cynomolgus macaques with monoclonal antibodies. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:138ra81. [PubMed]

7. Warren TK, Wells J, Panchal RG, Stuthman KS, Garza NL, Van Tongeren SA, et al. Protection against filovirus diseases by a novel broad-spectrum nucleoside analogue BCX4430. Nature. 2014;508:402-5. [PubMed]

8. Marzi A, Feldmann H. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014;13:521-31. [PubMed]

9. Qiu X, Kobinger GP. Antibody therapy for Ebola: Is the tide turning around?. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014 Feb 6;10(4). pii: 27813. [PubMed]

10. Nkoghe D, Formenty P, Nnegue S, Mve MT, Hypolite I, Leonard P, Leroy E; Comite International de Coordination Technique et Scientifique. Practical guidelines for the management of Ebola infected patients in the field. Med Trop (Mars). 2004;64(2):199-204.

11. Bausch DG. Viral hemorrhagic fevers. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 389.

12. Peters CJ. Marburg and ebola virus hemorrhagic fevers. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2009:chap 164.

13. Feldmann H, Geisbert TW. Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Lancet. Mar 5, 2011; 377(9768): 849–862. [PubMed]

14. Siegert R, Shu HL, Slenczka W, Peters D, Muller G. On the etiology of an unknown human infection originating from monkeys. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1967;92:2341–43. [PubMed]

15. Cox NJ, McCormick JB, Johnson KM, Kiley MP. Evidence for two subtypes of Ebola virus based on oligonucleotide mapping of RNA. J Infect Dis. 1983;147:272–257. [PubMed]

16. Sanchez, A., A. S. Khan, S. R. Zaki, G. J. Nabel, T. G. Ksiazek, and C. J. Peters. 2001. Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses, p. 1279-1304. In D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields virology. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.

17. Martini G.A. Marburg Virus Disease. Springer- Verlag, New York;1971:1-9.

18. Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Burt FJ, Zachariades NA, Braack LE, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Zaki SR, Peters CJ. Emerg Infect Dis.1996;2: 321-325. [PubMed]

19. Geisbert TW, Hensley LE, Geisbert JB, Leung A, Johnson JC, Grolla A, Feldmann H. Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. Jul 2010; 16(7): 1119–1122. [PubMed]

20. Geisbert TW, Hensley LE, Geisbert JB, et al. Postexposure treatment of Marburg virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 7:1119–22. [PubMed]

21. Warren TK, Warfield KL, Wells J, et al. Advanced antisense therapies for postexposure protection against lethal filovirus infections. Nat Med. 2010; 16:991–4. [PubMed]

22. Geisbert TW, Lee ACH, Robbins M, et al. Postexposure protection of nonhuman primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: a proof-of-concept study. Lancet 2010; 375:1896–905. [PubMed]

23. Feldman H. Are we any closer to combating Ebola infections? Lancet 2010; 375:1850–2. [PubMed]

24. Hensley LE, Stevens EL, Yan SB, Geisbert JB, Macias WL, Larsen T, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Cassell GH, Jahrling PB, Geisbert TW. Recombinant human activated protein C for the postexposure treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.J Infect Dis.2007 Nov15;196 Suppl 2:S390-9.

25. Geisbert TW, Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Geisbert JB, Young HA, fernando L. Marburg virus Angola infection of Rhesus macaques: pathogenesis and treatment with recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:S372–S381.

26. Spurgers KB, Sharkey CM, Warfield KL, Bavari S. Oligonucleotide antiviral therapeutics: antisense and RNA interference for highly pathogenic RNA viruses. Antiviral Res 2008;78:26–36. [PubMed]

27. Martini GA. Marburg agent disease: in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1969; 63:295. [PubMed]

28. Leroy EM, Rouquet P, Formenty P, Souquière S, Kilbourne A, Froment JM, Bermejo M, Smit S, Karesh W, Swanepoel R, Zaki SR, Rollin PE. Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife. Science. 2004;303(5656):387.

29. Rouquet P, Froment JM, Bermejo M, Kilbourn A, Karesh W, Reed P, Kumulungui B, Yaba P, Délicat A, Rollin PE, Leroy EM. Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(2):283. [PubMed]

30. World Health Organization. Global Alert and Response. Ebola virus disease, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/.

31. Geisbert TW, Hensley LE, Larsen T, Young HA, Reed DS, Geisbert JB, et al. Pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in cynomolgus macaques: evidence that dendritic cells are early and sustained targets of infection. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:2347-70. [PubMed]

32. Geisbert TW, Hensley HE, Larsen T, Young HA, Reed DS, Geisbert JB et al. Pathogenesis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Cynomolgus Macaques. Evidence that Dendritic Cells Are Early and Sustained Targets of Infection. Am J Pathol. Dec 2003; 163(6): 2347–2370. [PubMed]

33. Smadel JE. Epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1953 Oct;43(10):1327-30. [PubMed]

34. Rotz LD, Khan AS, Lillibridge SR, Ostroff SM, Huges JM. Public health assessment of potential biological terrorism agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Feb;8(2):225-30.
DOI: 10.17511/ijmrr.2014.i05.20
Published: 2014-10-31
How to Cite
Kumar Patel V, Patel U, Gedam DS, Prasad Patel N, Verma J, Tiwari V. Ebola Outbreak: An Evolving Epidemic- A Review. Int J Med Res Rev [Internet]. 2014Oct.31 [cited 2024Jun.21];2(5):496-03. Available from: https://ijmrr.medresearch.in/index.php/ijmrr/article/view/149
Review Article