A Cross-Sectional Study of Socio-Demographic and Clinical Features of Indian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Diabetes Hospital
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a group of heterogeneous diseases with varied clinical presentation and disease progression. Understanding the socio-demographic factors in subjects with diabetes is an important step for planning diabetes care. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the socio-demographic and clinical features of subjects with diabetes and impact of these factors on their glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the outpatient department of Karnataka Institute of Endocrinology and research, Bangalore. 200 subjects with diabetes were recruited for the study, between January to August 2019. Results: In the study, mean age at diagnosis was 43.73 ± 8.705 years. Majority of subjects were in the age group >56 years (53%). 59.5% of the subjects were males and 83.5% of the subjects were from urban area. Majority of them were diagnosed during routine check-up (52.5%). Most common symptom was polyuria (21%). 12.5% of the subjects were incidentally detected during hospital admission. 46.5% had family history of Diabetes. 77.5% of the subjects were overweight and obese. Only 18.5% of the subjects had HbA1c <7. 39% of the subjects had dyslipidemia, 54.5% had hypertension and 19% had hypothyroidism. 29% of the subjects had retinopathy, 20% had neuropathy, 7% had nephropathy and 3.5% had PAD. 79% of the subjects were on OHA, 6% were on insulin and 12.5% were on both OHA and insulin. Amongst the subjects on oral drugs, only 6.3% were on monotherapy and the rest were on multiple drugs. Amongst subjects on insulin, 96.5% were on premixed insulin. Age, gender, education, OHA and combination of insulin and OHA for treatment were the factors associated significantly with glycemic control. Good control was highest in young age group (66.7%) and lowest in old age group (16%). Females had highest level of poor control compared to males. Graduates had higher percentage of good control compared to lower educational status. Subjects on OHA had higher percentage of good control. Conclusions: The study revealed that poor glycemic control, comorbidities like HTN, obesity and dyslipidemia and chronic complications were commonly prevalent in subjects with T2DM. Emphasis should be given to periodic evaluation of glycemic status, comorbidities, and diabetes complications.
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